Atomic symbol (on the Periodic Table of Elements): Fe 3. Iron is quite soft and easily worked, but it has a very high melting point of 1538°C. Atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus): 26 2. [5][167][168][169] When loss of iron is not adequately compensated by adequate dietary iron intake, a state of latent iron deficiency occurs, which over time leads to iron-deficiency anemia if left untreated, which is characterised by an insufficient number of red blood cells and an insufficient amount of hemoglobin. The properties of pure iron are often used to calibrate measurements or to compare tests. Damage to the cells of the gastrointestinal tract can also prevent them from regulating iron absorption, leading to further increases in blood levels. Iron is a mineral that has many functions. [134] Powdered iron in an acidic solvent was used in the Bechamp reduction the reduction of nitrobenzene to aniline.[135]. In 1783 he patented the puddling process for refining iron ore. [5] Bread and breakfast cereals are sometimes specifically fortified with iron. [136], Iron is required for life. [180] People having chemotherapy may develop iron deficiency and anemia, for which intravenous iron therapy is used to restore iron levels. [94] Iron working was introduced to Greece in the late 11th century BC, from which it spread quickly throughout Europe. Iron in sea ice: Review and new insights. The Evidence from Old Indian and Iranian Texts", "Chinese blast furnaces from the 10th to the 14th century", A Brief History of Iron and Steel Production, "Properties of Various Pure Irons: Study on pure iron I", "Classification of Carbon and Low-Alloy Steels", "Radiation Shielding at High-Energy Electron and Proton Accelerators", "Where are Heterogenous Reactions Important", "Siderophores: structure and function of microbial iron transport compounds", "Tumor necrosis factor-α-induced iron sequestration and oxidative stress in human endothelial cells", "How Mammals Acquire and Distribute Iron Needed for Oxygen-Based Metabolism", "Iron regulatory protein prevents binding of the 43S translation pre-initiation complex to ferritin and eALAS mRNAs", "Human Carboxyhemoglobin at 2.2 Å Resolution: Structure and Solvent Comparisons of R-State, R2-State and T-State Hemoglobins", "Mussels' iron grip inspires strong and stretchy polymer", Food Standards Agency – Eat well, be well – Iron deficiency, "Overview on Dietary Reference Values for the EU population as derived by the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies", "Tolerable Upper Intake Levels For Vitamins And Minerals", "Serum ferritin in Danes: studies of iron status from infancy to old age, during blood donation and pregnancy", "Federal Register May 27, 2016 Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. Good sources of iron include: liver (but avoid this during pregnancy) red meat; beans, such as red kidney beans, edamame beans and chickpeas; nuts; dried fruit – such as dried apricots Its low cost and high strength often make it the material of choice material to withstand stress or transmit forces, such as the construction of machinery and machine tools, rails, automobiles, ship hulls, concrete reinforcing bars, and the load-carrying framework of buildings. Hemochromatosis is estimated to be the cause of 0.3 to 0.8% of all metabolic diseases of Caucasians. Anemia can occur among children who do not get enough iron. In all cases, the objective is to oxidize some or all of the carbon, together with other impurities. It makes the steel softer and more workable.[119]. For other uses, see, Structural formula of ferrocene and a powdered sample, Klein, Cornelis and Cornelius S. Hurlbut, Jr. (1985). [117] Other metals can be added at this stage to form alloy steels. Iron deposits have been located on all major continents with the exception of Antarctica. Iron is an essential dietary mineral that is critical to human health. [103], Cast iron was first produced in China during 5th century BC,[104] but was hardly in Europe until the medieval period. [5] Iron proteins are involved in electron transfer. This made steel much more economical, thereby leading to wrought iron no longer being produced in large quantities. 10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.08.005. It was later improved by others, including Joseph Hall. A mineral is a naturally occurring inorganic element or compound having an orderly internal structure and characteristic chemical composition, crystal form, and physical properties. Following this, iron was used in rails, boats, ships, aqueducts, and buildings, as well as in iron cylinders in steam engines. [108] Railways have been central to the formation of modernity and ideas of progress[109] and various languages (e.g. doi: Tagliabue, A., Bopp, L., Aumont,O., & Arrigo, K.R. [140] The cytochrome proteins also involve heme groups and are involved in the metabolic oxidation of glucose by oxygen. Tylecote, "Iron in the Industrial Revolution" in J. "Direct iron reduction" reduces iron ore to a ferrous lump called "sponge" iron or "direct" iron that is suitable for steelmaking. [160] Frequent blood donors are at risk of low iron levels and are often advised to supplement their iron intake.[161]. Geobiology, 14(5), 499-508. doi: Wells, M.L., Price, N.M., & Bruland, K.W. These have one, two, four, or eight iron atoms that are each approximately tetrahedrally coordinated to four sulfur atoms; because of this tetrahedral coordination, they always have high-spin iron. They appear to be the first to understand the production of iron from its ores and regard it highly in their society. [140] Myoglobin, on the other hand, contains only one heme group and hence this cooperative effect cannot occur. [112], Iron plays a certain role in mythology and has found various usage as a metaphor and in folklore. (2001) "The State and the Iron Industry in Han China", NIAS Publishing, Copenhagen. These people may experience symptoms associated with iron deficiency which is the most common nutrient deficiency. Meteoric iron was highly regarded due to its origin in the heavens and was often used to forge weapons and tools. (2009). In the Industrial Revolution, new methods of producing bar iron without charcoal were devised and these were later applied to produce steel. [128] A newer variant of gray iron, referred to as ductile iron, is specially treated with trace amounts of magnesium to alter the shape of graphite to spheroids, or nodules, reducing the stress concentrations and vastly increasing the toughness and strength of the material.[128]. Iron is considered an essential mineral because it is needed to make hemoglobin, a part of blood cells… [110], New methods of producing it by carburizing bars of iron in the cementation process were devised in the 17th century. Cooling a mixture of iron with 0.8% carbon slowly below 723 °C to room temperature results in separate, alternating layers of cementite and α-iron, which is soft and malleable and is called pearlite for its appearance. In the late 1850s, Henry Bessemer invented a new steelmaking process, involving blowing air through molten pig iron, to produce mild steel. It plays a key role in supporting the immune system, too. Some children may need more iron than others. The source of its chemical symbol Fe is the Latin word ferrum, and its descendants are the names of the element in the Romance languages (for example, French fer, Spanish hierro, and Italian and Portuguese ferro). The amount of stress required to permanently damage them increased 76 times. Although iron is found in a wide range of foods many people do not obtain sufficient amounts of this mineral from their diet. Annealing consists of heating them to 700–800 °C for several hours and then gradual cooling. Continue giving your child iron drops until he or she is regularly eating foods that contain iron. [140] In hemoglobin, the iron is in one of four heme groups and has six possible coordination sites; four are occupied by nitrogen atoms in a porphyrin ring, the fifth by an imidazole nitrogen in a histidine residue of one of the protein chains attached to the heme group, and the sixth is reserved for the oxygen molecule it can reversibly bind to. Oxford: Berg. The BIF-hosted iron ore system represents the world's largest and highest grade iron ore districts and deposits. Iron catalysts are traditionally used in the Haber-Bosch process for the production of ammonia and the Fischer-Tropsch process for conversion of carbon monoxide to hydrocarbons for fuels and lubricants. : Fe 2+ in square planar site: Raspberry red colour in gillespite from El Roasrio, Baja California, Mexico. In the Earth's crust iron is found mainly as minerals of iron oxide such as hematite, magnetite, goethite and limonite. [140], When deoxyhemoglobin picks up an oxygen molecule, this histidine residue moves away and returns once the oxygen is securely attached to form a hydrogen bond with it. Iron is an essential nutrient: a minera l which is required in small amounts by your body. [133], Although the dominant use of iron is in metallurgy, iron compounds are also pervasive in industry. [117], Steel products often undergo various heat treatments after they are forged to shape. Phase at room temperature: Solid 6. The end product below 0.8% carbon content is a pearlite-αFe mixture, and that above 0.8% carbon content is a pearlite-cementite mixture. ): Craddock, Paul T. (2008): "Mining and Metallurgy", in: Wagner, Donald B. Iron(II) compounds tend to be oxidized to iron(III) compounds in the air. Good sources of iron. Iron (mineral) synonyms, Iron (mineral) pronunciation, Iron (mineral) translation, English dictionary definition of Iron (mineral). Based on synthetic replicas, the presence of iron in these structures increased elastic modulus 770 times, tensile strength 58 times, and toughness 92 times. For all these processes, charcoal was required as fuel. Wrought iron contains less than 0.25% carbon but large amounts of slag that give it a fibrous characteristic. [157], The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) refers to the collective set of information as Dietary Reference Values, with Population Reference Intake (PRI) instead of RDA, and Average Requirement instead of EAR. 1 Iron also helps maintain our energy levels, regulate body temperature and may even improve athletic performance. Iron is important in making red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body. Preterm babies often need more iron than full-term babies. Steel (with smaller carbon content than pig iron but more than wrought iron) was first produced in antiquity by using a bloomery. At around 12 months, your child’s doctor or nurse will likely test to see if your baby has anemia. [126] Austenite (γ-iron) is similarly soft and metallic but can dissolve considerably more carbon (as much as 2.04% by mass at 1146 °C). It helps our muscles store and use oxygen. Only small amounts of iron are lost daily due to mucosal and skin epithelial cell sloughing, so control of iron levels is primarily accomplished by regulating uptake. For pregnancy and lactation, 16 mg/day. R.F. Iron is also stored in muscle tissue, and helps supply the muscles with the oxygen needed to make them contract. Iron is a mineral that is naturally present in many foods, added to some food products, and available as a dietary supplement. For children under fourteen years old the UL is 40 mg/day. The attenuation of radiation as a function of energy is shown in the graph. The Greek poet Hesiod's Works and Days (lines 109–201) lists different ages of man named after metals like gold, silver, bronze and iron to account for successive ages of humanity. Wrought iron is more corrosion resistant than steel. Once your child starts to eat foods, introduce your child to foods that contain iron. [132], The main disadvantage of iron and steel is that pure iron, and most of its alloys, suffer badly from rust if not protected in some way, a cost amounting to over 1% of the world's economy. The main iron ores are from the oxide group consisting of hematite, goethite, and magnetite. For men, 8.0 mg/day for ages 19 and up. RDA for pregnancy is 27 mg/day and, for lactation, 9 mg/day. Mild steel corrodes more readily than wrought iron, but is cheaper and more widely available. Iron chemistry in seawater and its relationship to phytoplankton: a workshop report. Pig iron has 3.5–4.5% carbon[127] and contains varying amounts of contaminants such as sulfur, silicon and phosphorus. [158] The EFSA reviewed the same safety question did not establish a UL. [173] In these people, excessive iron intake can result in iron overload disorders, known medically as hemochromatosis. [88] The subsequent period is called the Iron Age. Tylecote, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 21:53. [12], In gray iron the carbon exists as separate, fine flakes of graphite, and also renders the material brittle due to the sharp edged flakes of graphite that produce stress concentration sites within the material. The reduction of contaminants in pig iron that negatively affect material properties, such as sulfur and phosphorus, yields cast iron containing 2–4% carbon, 1–6% silicon, and small amounts of manganese. Number of isotopes (atoms of the same element with a different number of … French, Spanish, Italian and German) refer to railways as iron road. Linking to a non-federal website does not constitute an endorsement by CDC or any of its employees of the sponsors or the information and products presented on the website. [114], For a few limited purposes when it is needed, pure iron is produced in the laboratory in small quantities by reducing the pure oxide or hydroxide with hydrogen, or forming iron pentacarbonyl and heating it to 250 °C so that it decomposes to form pure iron powder. Berlin iron jewellery reached its peak production between 1813 and 1815, when the Prussian royal family urged citizens to donate gold and silver jewellery for military funding. [172] Regulation of iron uptake is impaired in some people as a result of a genetic defect that maps to the HLA-H gene region on chromosome 6 and leads to abnormally low levels of hepcidin, a key regulator of the entry of iron into the circulatory system in mammals. Limnology and Oceanography, 36(8), 1742-1755. It almost always consists of iron oxides, the primary forms of which are magnetite (Fe3O4) and hematite (Fe2O3). They collect at the bottom as two immiscible liquid layers (with the slag on top), that are then easily separated. When your child is about 6 months old, you can start giving solid foods to your child. FR page 33982", "Daily Value Reference of the Dietary Supplement Label Database (DSLD)", "FDA provides information about dual columns on Nutrition Facts label", "Industry Resources on the Changes to the Nutrition Facts Label", "Iron deficiency – United States, 1999–2000", "Recommendations to Prevent and Control Iron Deficiency in the United States", "Hepcidin, a key regulator of iron metabolism and mediator of anemia of inflammation", "Iron toxicity in mice with collagenase-induced intracerebral hemorrhage", "Epidemiological and nonclinical studies investigating effects of iron in carcinogenesis--a critical review", https://doi.org/10.4319/lo.1991.36.8.1742, http://dx.doi.org.ju.idm.oclc.org/10.1111/gbi.12189, https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4203(94)00055-I, https://doi.org/10.12952/journal.elementa.000130, https://doi.org/10.2113/gselements.7.2.101, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Iron&oldid=999380273, Biology and pharmacology of chemical elements, Articles containing Japanese-language text, CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2018, Articles containing potentially dated statements from May 2016, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in the world. Your child’s iron needs can be met by standard infant formulas for the first 12 months of life. Melting point: 2,800.4 degrees Fahrenheit (1,538 degrees Celsius) 7. [124], An increase in the carbon content will cause a significant increase in the hardness and tensile strength of iron. [176] Overconsumption of iron, often the result of children eating large quantities of ferrous sulfate tablets intended for adult consumption, is one of the most common toxicological causes of death in children under six. This bridge still stands today as a monument to the role iron played in the Industrial Revolution. [175] Humans experience iron toxicity when the iron exceeds 20 milligrams for every kilogram of body mass; 60 milligrams per kilogram is considered a lethal dose. In the case of iron the UL is set at 45 mg/day. Another important class of iron-sulfur proteins is the ferredoxins, which have multiple iron atoms. Riederer, Josef; Wartke, Ralf-B. Iron is the mineral. [95], The spread of ironworking in Central and Western Europe is associated with Celtic expansion. [150], Hemoglobin is an oxygen carrier that occurs in red blood cells and contributes their color, transporting oxygen in the arteries from the lungs to the muscles where it is transferred to myoglobin, which stores it until it is needed for the metabolic oxidation of glucose, generating energy. [12], "White" cast irons contain their carbon in the form of cementite, or iron carbide (Fe3C). [5] These compounds participate in transporting gases, building enzymes, and transferring electrons. Their alloy content raises their cost, and so they are usually only employed for specialist uses. Deep-Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography, 58(3-4), 493-511. Iron is a common element in many minerals. [140], The ability of sea mussels to maintain their grip on rocks in the ocean is facilitated by their use of organometallic iron-based bonds in their protein-rich cuticles. The simplest of such compounds is rubredoxin, which has only one iron atom coordinated to four sulfur atoms from cysteine residues in the surrounding peptide chains. Iron is a mineral found in every cell of the body. According to Pliny the Elder, iron use was common in the Roman era. [5], Iron plays an essential role in marine systems and can act as a limiting nutrient for planktonic activity. Iron is usually, at least from the standpoint of the layman, the first trace mineral that is considered in terms of supplementation. n. 1. [89] The Hittites began to smelt iron between 1500 and 1200 BC and the practice spread to the rest of the Near East after their empire fell in 1180 BC. [171], Iron uptake is tightly regulated by the human body, which has no regulated physiological means of excreting iron. [152], Iron is pervasive, but particularly rich sources of dietary iron include red meat, oysters, lentils, beans, poultry, fish, leaf vegetables, watercress, tofu, chickpeas, black-eyed peas, and blackstrap molasses. [81] It has been worked, or wrought, for millennia. Iron(III) oxide mixed with aluminium powder can be ignited to create a thermite reaction, used in welding large iron parts (like rails) and purifying ores. [156], The U.S. Institute of Medicine (IOM) updated Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) and Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for iron in 2001. The minerals goethite, hematite (ferric oxide), lepidocrocite, magnetite (iron oxide) and siderite (iron carbonate) are all mined for iron. [176] The Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) sets the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) for adults at 45 mg/day. The PRIs are higher than the U.S. RDAs, with the exception of pregnancy. One common alloy steel, though, is stainless steel. To receive email updates about this topic, enter your email address. Cytochrome a is slightly distinct, as it occurs at the mitochondrial membrane, binds directly to oxygen, and transports protons as well as electrons, as follows:[140], Although the heme proteins are the most important class of iron-containing proteins, the iron-sulfur proteins are also very important, being involved in electron transfer, which is possible since iron can exist stably in either the +2 or +3 oxidation states. For this reason, people should not take iron supplements unless they suffer from iron deficiency and have consulted a doctor. [76] Kluge relates *isarnon to Illyric and Latin ira, 'wrath'). (2016). Hemoglobin gives red blood cells their color, and stores most of the body’s iron supply. Horses need calcium, phosphorus, and a number of other minerals in their diets. Iron deficiency can limit oxygen delivery and the production of enzymes that rely on iron to function properly, including those involved in energy production. [12] This hard, brittle compound dominates the mechanical properties of white cast irons, rendering them hard, but unresistant to shock. [187] Increased light and warmth increases the amount of iron that is in forms that are usable by primary producers. Its purpose is to remove silicaceous minerals in the ore, which would otherwise clog the furnace. The inscription Gold gab ich für Eisen (I gave gold for iron) was used as well in later war efforts. For men the PRI is 11 mg/day ages 15 and older. (2009) "Iron", Cancik, Hubert; Schneider, Helmuth (eds. This results in the Fe2+ ion switching to a low-spin configuration, resulting in a 20% decrease in ionic radius so that now it can fit into the porphyrin ring, which becomes planar. For children ages 1 to 14 the PRI increases from 7 to 11 mg/day. 6H2O). Iron is a mineral that occurs in many foods, such as beef, poultry, seafood, beans, and green, leafy vegetables. 1. [129][130][131], Apart from traditional applications, iron is also used for protection from ionizing radiation. The heat of the furnace decomposes the carbonates to calcium oxide, which reacts with any excess silica to form a slag composed of calcium silicate CaSiO3 or other products. When the body's iron stores become so low that not enough normal red blood cells can be made to carry oxygen efficiently, a … Reducing the amount of carbon to 0.002–2.1% by mass-produces steel, which may be up to 1000 times harder than pure iron. [citation needed] The Balto-Slavic names for iron (e.g. [136] It can also be dissolved in alcohol to form tincture of iron, which is used as a medicine to stop bleeding in canaries. [107] During the medieval period, means were found in Europe of producing wrought iron from cast iron (in this context known as pig iron) using finery forges. Having enough iron in the body can help prevent iron deficiency and iron deficiency anemia. In the first stage, iron ore is reduced with coke in a blast furnace, and the molten metal is separated from gross impurities such as silicate minerals. Heme iron is most commonly found in animal products like red meat, seafood, and poultry. Carbon steel contains 2.0% carbon or less,[129] with small amounts of manganese, sulfur, phosphorus, and silicon. Alloy steels contain varying amounts of carbon as well as other metals, such as chromium, vanadium, molybdenum, nickel, tungsten, etc. U.S. RDAs, with the oxygen needed to make hemoglobin, a protein which oxygen... Western Europe is associated with Celtic expansion excessive iron Intake can result iron! Hours and then gradual cooling and oxyhidroxide are used as a dietary supplement: Craddock, Paul T. ( ). 4 months old, he or she needs an additional source of iron silicic! The immune system, too equatorial Pacific 143 ] [ 144 ] 131. 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[ 88 ] then improved versions, Wootz steel by 1000 BC meteoric iron in BC! Dietary Reference Intake ( DRI ) sets the Tolerable upper Intake levels ( )! See if your baby has anemia would otherwise clog the furnace 's temperature, the sixth coordination site reserved the... ) 8 material, lead, it loses it quickly, storage and of... Ensuing availability of inexpensive iron was highly regarded due to its origin in the late 11th century BC, which! About eight times heavier than water ( its relative density is 7.87 ) or supplements are at risk...